Mini Survival Crash Course

 

Written by Richard Perron

MAIN LAW OF SURVIVAL:
THE MORE YOU TRY TO UNDERSTAND AN ENVIRONMENT and THE LESS YOU TRY TO FIGHT IT, THE KINDER IT WILL BE TO YOU.

PSYCHOLOGY?:

While it is true and vital that energy MUST be conserved it is equally important that the mind MUST BE KEPT BUSY.

ENDURANCE IS NOT ENOUGH:

This has been proven over & over again.

  • One needs training.
  • One MUST know what to do.
  • One MUST equip himself, mentally and physically.

If you want to survive you most likely will. If not; then you wont! CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IS ESSENTIAL TO SURVIVAL UNDER ANY PRIMITIVE CONDITIONS.IF LOST RELAX: !!!

  1. CONSERVE STRENGTH, FLUID, heat, by moving: AS little as possible and SLOWLY!
  2. PREPARE EMERGENCY SIGNALS, make shelter, inventory upplies, ration all food.
  3. GUARD against Infections, intestinal disorders.
  4. DON’T TRAVEL in adverse weather, if injured or confused Eventually someone will find you.
  5. STAY WITH DOWN AIRCRAFT, easily spotted. Determine your location, scout immediate area.
  6. DECIDE IF BEST TO TRAVEL OR STAY. Don’t separate parties; mark your path, leave messages behind, keep a log.
  7. KEEP knife, spare food, first/aid, signal equipment ON YOU at ALL TIME!DOWNHILL TRAVEL:

    Travel along water sheds may triple distance, lead to marshes, thickets etc. STRAIGHT LINE travel may be best.

    TEST for EXHAUSTION:

    Look up at sky, if it appears to be receding get some sleep.

    FOOD:

    ALL HEALTHY MAMMALS, BIRDS, INSECTS == EDIBLE! Yet beware of city & water and radiation contamination & pollution!

    SHELTER:

    AVOID Wind, high-water lines, poor drainage. Vent to AVOID carbon monoxide.

    NATURAL SHELTER =:Caves; overhangs; between rocks; snow banks; under tree with tops tied together; sand burrow; hollow tree; hole in snow around tree; LEAN-TO:Tarp or bark, snow blocks cut with knife or stick from trench. Build sleep platform inside, drain, vents. Candle heat about 32 Fahrenheit.

    WATER:

    To SURVIVE 10 days on no water at 50F. one NEEDS 3-4 pints /day and most can come from food. Look uphill for pollutants.BOIL & THEN, Test taste water, boil 10 minutes. To be safe or USE WATER TABLETS. (Iodine pills). (Iodine tables don’t work well in Tropics.) ANIMALS:Trails usually intersect at angle toward water, follow downhill. Birds fly to water early morning & evening. Nervousness indicates water nearby.

    VINES:Tree roots, thin branches, high-water content; stand sections on end to drain in a trough. AVOID MILKY SAP. WATER FROM URINE:URINE salts like sea water = OK distilled, better to freeze it.- First crystals to form are pure water. SNOW-ICE:50% less fuel needed to melt ice. Melt snow in hand or packed in can over fire. Eating raw snow causes dehydration. Ice is best. OCEAN ICE:1 year or more old looses salt, is fresh (bluish). Find in high-places where summer has thawed. Icebergs = salt free.

    OCEAN BEACHESig hole below hi-tide line or behind dunes, use first waterseeping in-deeper water is salty. WATER AT SEA:Use solar still. OK to add a little salt water to distilled or rain water for minerals. Salt water kills 1 or 2 days faster than no water at all. Salt water MUST be drunk as soon as possible up to 900 ML / daily then use fresh water if any, from dew, fish juice etc. To balance it out. ALL EDIBLE SALT & FRESH WATER FISH HAVE SAFE WATER IN MEAT, CHEW OR WRING IT OUT IN A CLOTH. RAINWATER:Collect all. Dew-wring out of blankets etc. laid open. Mop from grass, rock, cacti or other surfaces. SWAMP / TROPICStanding water usually unfit, streams muddy. Dig hole 9 feet from shore, let the waters filter in, strain, purify. (Halazone, Chlorine pills are Unreliable.) ARID LANDS: & DESERT:AVOID water holes where green vegetation doesn’t thrive = (poison).Look for water around vegetation. Especially Willows, Cottonwood. Low laces in outside bend or dry creeks (dig holes wait 2 hours) base of cliffs, hills mountains, canyon heads. Mineral stained rock; rainwater “potholes” in rocky places; low places between dunes. Muddy water = OK let silt settle. CACTI: ALL CACTI IN WORLD ARE SAFE.Mash core, extract liquid, taste varies. Small Barrel Fishhook) Cactus & Yucca best. PURIFY ALL ARID LAND WATER:Because of pollution purify ALL water near any town, villages etc.(Boil 10 minutes). Alkali, mineral flavours nearly always present. OK in small quantities, bleach through bag of sand; add charcoal or boil.SOLAR STILL: pix to get in open, damp place use a 6’x6′ clear plastic sheet over hole, sealed edges, rock centre weight, bucket collects water evaporated from ground, add vegetation pieces, urine. Collect 1 quart in 2 hours.

    PURIFICATION:Boil 10 minutes. Strain. Boil with charcoal removes bad taste. Tincture iodine 5 drops to 1 qart. Shake it. For Iodine tabs follow directions. Bleach 2 drops to 1 qt stir, stand 30 min. Chlorine Tbs. to 8 qts stand 30 min. Increase formula if water is dirty.

    DAYS EXPECTED SURVIVAL IN DESERT; NO WALKING:Shade/max. qts:01 2120F 2/1 2/290F 7/5 8/5.5 60F 10/8 11/8.5

    WALKING NIGHT ONLYDays Nights) 4 10 122/2 2.5/2.5 3/39/5.5 10/6.5 15/812/9 14/11 21/14

    ORIENTING: BY WATCH:

    Hold watch level, point hour hand at sun. South is mid way between hour hand and #12 in the smallest angle.

    South of Equator: read with face down, mid line points North. By SHADOW: Put long stick in ground, mark tip of shadow; 1 hour later mark tip again, line from first to second mark point East, N/S line is at right angle. BY STARStars rise in East, fall West. Plot movement of an overhead star by sighting across 2 fixed sticks (ex; if star on your right is rising (East) you are facing North). North star and Southern Cross remain relatively stationary above each pole. TRUE NORTH:Geographic North pole is “up” on most map. MAGNETIC NORTH = :Magnetic pole = that compass points to world-wide(approximately 1000 miles south of North Pole north of Hudson’s Bay). Magnetic Declination:The difference between True & Magnetic North, in degrees East or West of True North. SOME MAGNETIC DECLINATION READINGS: (Approx) = DegreesUS-Canada /10= East, Adak, AK /21* E = Anchorage / 30*E = Fort Whitehorse, NWT/ 10*E =The Pas, MB/22* E= Banf, North Cascades.20*E = Glacier, MT, Bend, OR 13* E = Yosemite, Yellowstone 15*E = Los Angeles, Grand Canyon.14*E = Cortez,CO / 13*E = Tucson AZ, Black Hills, SD /10*E = Big Bend, Texas, Liberal, Kansas. 5* E = Ozarks / 3*E =Ely, Minesota 0* = Churchill, MB, Indianapolis.Everglades / 1*W = Smokies/ 6*W/ Shenandoah USA/ 10*W=Hearst, Ont./ 14*W= Adirondacks 21*W= Upper Maine / 30*W= ST.John Newf. Schefferville, Labrador/ Mexico / 6*E= Yucatan 8*E= Mexico City / 9*E= E.Montery / 10* E = Mazatlan / 11*E = Canyon del Cobre.WORLD /10*W = London, Gibraltar/ 3*W = Mt.Kilimanjaro / 5* W = Zurich, Chad /2* E = Istanboul.2*E= Kabul, Afg./ 1*W= Mt.Everest 1*W = Honk-Kong/ 7*W = Tokyo / 1*E = Djkarta / 0* = Guam/ 11* E= Hawaii / 10*E=Sydney,Aust.15*E = Eastern IS.,Cape Horn / 13*W= Brazilia / 7*W = Manaus, Brazil/ 0*= LaPaz, Bol. / 10* W = Trinidad / 4*E= Panama.

    FIRE SOURCE:

    Build away from grass, trees, overhead snow. Clear duff to mineral soil.

    FLINT/STEEL =: quartz, jasper, agate, any glassy stone.

    FIRE FROM AMMUNITION:Remove projectile, pour 1/2 powder onto tinder, reload shell with rag wad, fire in air, put blazing rag on tinder.

    GAS/OIL:With sand in can or in hole.

    BATTERY: Spark from wire to each terminal.

    BURNING GLASS:Any convex lens; binocular, glasses, bottle bottom, bottlefilled with water, maybe carved ice piece: in bright sun, beam onto tinder.

    ANIMAL:Bones burn, fat makes good lamp, warming fire.

    TINDERhaved twigs, dry leaves & needles, heart of wet wood, plastic, dung, dry roots, pitch knots in old logs.

    OVERNIGHT FIRE KEPT:Cover coals with ashes, dry earth, will smoulder till morning.

    TORCH:Wrap bark cylinder or burn Pine knots. 24 hours Torch = fray end of 1″ diameter. Stick pitch coat, dry, repeat 1-2 times.

    KEEPING WARM AND DRY:Build small fire, sit closer, keep warmer. Sit between fire & reflecting surface. Sleep with feet toward fire. Fire is not essential in sub-zero temperature if one is properly insulated.

    CLOTHES / BOOTS:Keep loose for better insulation, ventilation, circulation.Perspiration = damp clothes frost; puff out air at collar & cuffs. Beat frost out of clothes with a stick. Mittens are warmest. Melted fat helps waterproof boots. Bark pieces = good inner soles.Persistently damp shoes, socks can cause “trench foot” = gangrene, infections. Insulate clothes with grass, moss, hay, leaves, feathers, etc.

    FALL THROUGH ICE: = Can kill in seconds; quickly roll in snow to blot up moisture & for warmth, remove clothes, let freeze beat ice out, then build drying fire.

    SLEEPING WARNING & TIPSleeping in clothes holds moisture, chills body. You will not freeze to death in your sleep; cold awakens you.

    SNOW TRAVEL:Burns 5-10 times more energy than staying put.

    FAST FOOD:

    (Macdonals?)ALL HEALTHY MAMMALS, BIRDS, INSECTS ARE EDIBLE; Yet beware of pollution. BEST SURVIVAL WEAPON IS FAT:UNBLED, LEAN MEAT, PROVIDES ALL BASIC ESSENTIALS.

    FORAGING = CAUTION: Can burn more energy than gained, upsetdigestion.

    INNER BARK FOOD: (pix to get asap**)Of Birch, Aspen, Poplar, most Pines, Slippery Elm, Cottonwood, Willow, Red Maple, = good Raw, cooked, tea. Store dried strips.

    1. SAP: Very nourishing, Cherry, Maple, Aspen, Birch, Hickory you can live on this alone for many weeks.
      Drink Raw: Tap from hole into inner bark, 2 gal. in 24 hours. Ingest via straw into mouth while sleeping. Plug tap after use.
    2. PINE: (Find all seeds and roots that are rich in fat and protein and have them first in the list of survival plants..) 2 do later
    3. ALL SEEDS IN “CONES” = RICH IN FAT, PROTEIN: Acorn, Nuts, Pecans all good Raw, roasted, meal. If bitter leach(grind, soak) out tannic acid. Evergreen needles raw, tea, hi-vitamin C.
    4. AVOID: Buckeye
    5. EGGS: BIRD OR TURTLE (WHITES WON’T HARD BOIL) ALL GOOD TO EAT.
    6. JACKING: Use light to hypnotise frogs, game on trail, water-hole, den.
    7. BURROWS:Fan smoke or pour water in, wait with club or snares.
    8. SLOW ANIMALS EASY TO CLUB: Opossum, Porcupine, Armadillo, Marmot? Groundhog, roosting birds, moulting Ducks, Lizards, others.
    9. FEEDING ON ANIMALS: Drive away, steal their meat.
    10. FUNGI: AVOID ALL MUSHROOMS, PUFFBALLS, ETC.
    11. AVOID: Snails (parasite), Toads (toxic skin), Worms (grit, = NO food value).
    12. INSECTS GOOD TO EAT: Moth, Mayflies, Cicadas, Crickets Dragonflies, Termites = Very Good.
    13. GRUBS GOOD TO EAT: Wood-Beetle, Larvae in logs. Grasshoppers: Remove legs, wings = GOOD! LIZARD, FROGS, SALAMANDERS,
      SNAKES = GOOD to EAT: Remove head, viscera, skin; roast, fry.
    14. FISH: Club or drive to shallows, arricade. Crayfish: Boil tails.
    15. TURTLE: Decapitate, bleed well, boil to puff off skin; split under shell in + pattern, declaw, disembowel. Wash all meat in & outside, boil 25 min. more. When flesh pulls of easy cut up and add
    16. LEATHER: Untanned: Good, protein-chew, swallow. MARINE LIFE: ALL SEAWEED (NOT THREADLIKE) BELOW WATER ARE EDIBLE! Cooked; eat slowly.AVOID if wilted, slimy or odorous. ALSO EDIBLE: Sea Cucumbers, Urchins, Abalone, Scallops, Octopus, Aquid, Limpets, Chiton, Periwinkles, Mussels, Shrimp, Oysters, Eels, (no scale) Crabs, non-Arctic Shark, white meat of salt water Clams.
    17. FISHES NOT TO EAT: Black Mussels, sea Snakes (scales) Rays, Jellyfish, Portuguese Man of war, fishes without scales, with irregular scales, tiny mouth, sunken eyes, slimy gills, flabby flesh, bad odour, box shape, bright colours, or that puff up with air.
    18. SAFEST FISH: Lie in deep water beyond reefs. PLANKTON-green slime under boats, logs, rocks, EDIBLE Raw, dried. Party lived on this alone for 115 days.
    19. DON’T EAT: Plants stranded or growing on beaches.

    ARCTIC FOOD:

    1. Nearly ALL VEGETABLE = EDIBLE but!
    2. DON’T EAT: Fungi, Baneberry, Lupine, Buttercup, Death Camus, False Hellebore, Larkspur, Monkshood, Vetch, (Locoweed) Waterhemlock. If eaten induce vomiting.
    3. ROCK TRIPE LICHEN = GOOD: Raw, soup, tea.
    4. Leathery dark lettuce leaf up to 3″ wide, around rock. Grows into south US. Reindeer Moss Lichen also in US.
    5. Low green grey plants, eat Raw, boiled.
    6. ALL LICHEN IN FAR NORTH ARE EDIBLE, STEAM OR BOIL FOR SAFETY.
    7. SWEET VETCH or Licorice Root, commonest root; in clumps on sandy soil shores. Cooked better taste than carrot.
    8. ALL BERRIES IN ARCTIC ARE EDIBLE, EXCEPT BANEBERRY.
    9. SHARK: Shark meat poison in Arctic only.

    DESERT

    1. Apache warriors lived just on Salamanders, Mesquite Beans, Cactus water.
    2. ALL CACTI FRUITS & FLESHY PARTS = GOOD; RAW, FRIED ETC. REMOVE SPINES, SKINS.
    3. SEEDS that ARE EDIBLE: Pynion Pine, desert Service berry, Gamble Oak, Ironwood, Jojoba, desert Gourd seeds, flowers.
    4. Mesquite = large shrub, small tree.
    5. Straight spines & bean pods, fern like leaves, yellow flowers. Seeds, pods = Raw, or cooked.
    6. Manzanita = large shrub, crooked branches.
    7. Brownish-pink berries = Raw cooked, ground; acorn like.
    8. Tumbleweed or Russian Thistle, young plant boiled.
    9. Joshua Tree = flower buds roasted.
    10. Yuccas = flowers Raw or toasted.
    11. Agaves (Mescal) = stalk heart like Asparagus, roasted.
    12. Fan Palm ripe berries roasted, hangs in huge clumps off ends of branches. PLANT EDIBILITY TEST = Limit diet to plants positively identifiable or seen eaten by rabbit, rodents, beavers, squirrels, raccoons, monkeys and bears. Birds are not reliable. Place very small amount inside lower lip, taste for soapy, bitter, acid, burning taste for 5 minutes. Increase dose every 6-10 hours. If no ill effect in 24 hours it is probably safe, but continue caution.
    13. AVOID:Those with MILKY SAP, (toxic) black spurs on grain (diseased) or that look sickly. Cook if in doubt.

    SOME EDIBLE PLANTS AMONG THE MORE NUTRITIOUS & COMMON IN TEMPERATE ZONES:MOST PLANTS HAVE EDIBLE PARTS. Taste test succulent parts of appealing plants.

    CAUTION: Water plants absorb Pollutants. Starchy parts more nutritious when boiled.

    1. ABBREVIATIONS:
      • WH= Water habitat, / * = very nutritious / y = young.
      • THIS IS A BIT CONFUSING GET A BETTER SHEET SPREAD OF IT!
        • PL= entire plant /
        • SE= seeds /
        • G= grains /
        • B= buds /
        • FL= flowers /
        • FR= fruits /
        • L= leaves /
        • SH= shoots /
        • STE= stems /
        • STA= stalks /
        • R= roots /
        • T= tubers /
        • r= raw /
        • c= cooked /
        • b= boiled /
        • p= pealed /
        • d= dried /
        • g= ground (dried, meal); /
        • t= tea.
      • GRASSES:Blades with common base or stalk; be careful, high cellulose content leaves are stomach abrasive. NO KNOWN GRASS IS POISONOUS:Eg; Wheat, Barley, Rice, Reeds, Rushes, Red Top, Millet, Oats, Sedges, Foxtail, Crabgrass, Nutgrass, Johnson grass, Buffalo grass, Canary grass, others: PIX NEEDEDAll SE grass; PLrc; Legumes: Wild Beans, Peas = GOOD. Taste test to be sure.
      • BERRIES: PIX NEEDEDFruit & tea leaves = Blackberry / Raspberry / Salmonberry/ Dewberry / Cloudberry / Strawberry / Thimbleberry.
      • Wintergreen: Fruit = Mulberry / Gooseberry / Elderberry / Bunchberry / Whortleberry / Huckleberry/ Hackberry / Currants, others.
      • TREES:
        • Red Cedar (Juniper) = FRrc, Lt /
        • Spruce = *SHr, Lrt /
        • Red Sumac = red FRrt /
        • Hawthorn = FRrc, Lt /
        • Saddafras = SHr, Lt /
        • Slippery Elm = Lr /
        • Birch = Lrt, SHrb /
        • Beech = yLr /
        • Red Maple = Br /
        • Sugar Maple = *yLr, ySEr./
        • ALFAFA = *Lt/ SHr (1-2′)
        • Amaranth or Pigweed = SEd/ yLc/ FL (3-4′)
        • Arrowhead = WH/ TBc/ FL (1-3′)
        • Asparagus = SHr (1-2′)
        • Artichoke= *Tb
        • Bitterroot = *FL/ Rpbd
        • Dandelion = **Rd/ PLr/ PLb (2-8″
        • Burdock = Rpb/ SHc/ Lrc (1-5′)
        • Catnip = Lrdt (1-3′)
        • Chickenweed= PLb (6″-12″
        • Columbine= Rrt/ yLb (6″-5′)
        • Bracken Fern= WH/ SHb (1-4′)
        • Elderberry = FRr /
        • Chicory = YPLr/ Rb/ PLb (2-3′)
        • Clovers = Rr/ FLr
        • Chufa or Nutgrass = Trbg / (1-3′)
        • Daisy = yLr / petals raw(1-2′)
        • Day Lilly = Lr/ Tc (2-6′) /
        • Horsetail = WH/ */ SHpr
        • Filarees (spring) = yLrc/ ySTErc
        • Cattai l= Rbd/ Trb/ SHrc /STAprc (3-8′)
        • Fireweed = ySTEb/ STArp/ yLrt/ FL (1-4′)
        • Goldenrod = Bdt/ yLr/ Ldt (4′) H
        • oneysuckle = FLr/ Lt
        • Mullein = Lc/ FL (3-6′) /
        • Lambs Quarters = reeds, Lrc/ Flr/ SErg (2-6′)
        • Plantains = */ Lrt (3-12″
        • Mallows = FRr/ Lrb (1-4′)
        • Milkweed = SHb/ Rb/ Bb/ Lb/ SE (2-5′)
        • Minner Lettuce = Lr/ STEb/ (6-12″
        • Sunflower = * / Tb/ SEr Nettles = * / yLr/ ySHb (2-6′)
        • Mustard = PLc/ yLr/ yFLrc (1-5′)
        • Pickerelweed = ySTEr/ yLrc/ WH SErg (1-2′)
        • Eve.Primrose = */ SHprRpc/ Lrc/ FL (1-2′)
        • Purslane = */ PLrb /
        • Rhubarb (red best) = */ STArc (1-2′)
        • Sheep Sorrel = */ SHrc/ Lrc/ FL(18″
        • Shepherds Purse = **/ SEc/ yLrt/ yFLr (3-19″
        • Solomon Seal = Rrc / Thistle = SHb/ STApb/ FL (4′)
        • Wild Rose = * / FRrt/ Lp Wild Onion=PLrb / (1-2′)
        • Water Lillies = * / WH/ Rc/ Bb/ SEb/ yLb/ ySTAb
        • Whitetop = Lc/ FL (2-5′)
        • Wild Pea = PLrc
        • Wintercress = * / Lrc (1′)
        • Wild Carrot or Queen Anns Lace = */ Rrc/ Lrc/ SErc/ FL (3-4′)
        • Tiger Lilly = Tb / FLcd /
        • Violet = */ Lrt/ FLrt (6″
        • Yarrow(milfoil) = PLct/ FL (1-2′) /
        • Yellow Dock = Lrc / FL/ (3-4′)
        • Watercress = WH/ **/ STEr/ Lr/ Rt (1′) /
        • Wild Grape = */ Lrc/ FRr/ SHb
        • Wood Sorrel (shamrock) = * / PLrb/ FL (8″

        HUNTING:

        Look for dens, runways, feeding & watering places.Best in early morning & evening hours. Stalk silently, slowly, against or across wind, or lay in waiting.

        AIM! WHERE?:

    • Deer, Elk, Moose = back of head, lower neck, behind front shoulder (if you hit, don’t run wait 10 min, till it bleeds dead)
    • Seal = behind eye;
    • Musk-Ox = neck or shoulder;
    • Bear = Behind ear, upper neck, behind front shoulder;
    • Small game = head.

    SNARES: Place snares, traps among natural obstacles; minimize human scent by smoking your snares. Many small nooses-tie to limbs near nests, roots. Drawstring bag-squirrel bait inside; pull cord.

    Pole with nose on end for nesting birds, fish. BOLA: Stones on end of strings, spun overhead and thrown at flocks of birds, small animals.

    FISHING HOOKSins, nails, bones etc. Flies, Shoestring, hair, Milkweed, feathers.

    BAIT: = Worms, grubs, shellfish, insect, meat.

    NIGHT-LINE: = String of baited hooks across stream.

    DRUGS : Crushed leaves & stalk of Mullein, Road of Soap plant, Green Buckeye seeds, thrown into water will daze fish, who will float to surface; you can eat at once. Also: Burn coral or sea shells to make lime.

    TRAPS: Build funnel trap or construct stake corral in shallow water facing into current or toward high tide line.

    DRESSING GAMES: ALWAYS cook food well for safety. Protect meat from egg-laying flies (maggots). SAVE ALL FAT: To cook with meat. STEW GIVE THE MOST FOOD VALUE!

    BIRDS: Bleed, pluck at once, singe & remove pin feather. Boil carrion-eating birds 25 minutes to kill parasites.

    SMALL GAME: Cut skin around mid body, peel off to head and tail, remove feet, head. Open belly from anus to chin. Cut through pelvic, break open. Cut open rib cage; remove anus, genitals, guts in one piece. Wash well.

    BIG GAME: (Dinosaur?)Cut jugular, bleed (huting people do not bleed meat); much Vitamin C, prevents Scurvy. Remove leg scent glands on Deer. Skin-midline cut from anus to jaw, from midline out to hocks (rear) and ankles (front), cut around each leg & head behind ears. Remove organs soon, don’t rupture intestine, gall and urine bladders (spoil meat).

    Hang carcass for cooling before butchering. Halve between 2 & 3 ribs from rear. Remove from place of killing.

    1. ALL PARTS large, small animal = EDIBLE.
    2. (AVOID Polar Bear and Seal liver = poison, too high vitamin A.)
    3. RABBIT ONLY DIET = DANGER
    4. No fat will induce diarrhoea, starvation.
    5. Don’t handle uncooked animal in bare hand, danger of tularaemia (rabbit fever).
    6. Discard all rodent skins.
    7. BONE-MARROW-BLOOD =:Nourishing in healthy animals.
    8. Calcium-chew bones ends.

    WOOD KNIFE: = Elm, Hickory bark, shape. Soak overnight, fast dry over fire. Sharpen on rock. Repeat many times. Gets hard as soft steel. Good for skinning & light chore.

    EQUIPMENT SKINScrape of all fat, flesh. Smoke dry over tripod over low fire. Good bedding, etc. fur side out. Save bird pelts.

    RAWHIDEPresoak if skin is dry) stake out, scrape skin side perfectly clean.

    Wash (water or urine) clean, leave staked in sun to dry 1-2 days. Turn over, re-stage, scrape off fur (easier if soaked overnight in wood-ash solution) On soft backing pound dry hide with blunt hammer to break grain, till white & soft.

    TANNINGame soaking & scraping as rawhide (Deer, Elk don’t requirepounding). When dry rub with warmed brains, finely mashed until saturated. Roll up overnight. Next day re-stage & scrape off all brain tissue. Work back and forth through a rope loop; friction dries & completes tanning. If used for clothing smoke over smudge fire until light brown (will dry soft if it gets wet).

    DRYING MEAT: Any lean meat; remove all visible fat-will or go rancid quickly. Dry in the sun or 4 feet over hot coals (Use green hardwood never resinous.) DO NOT COOK. Keep from moisture at all times. Brush with salt before drying aids preservation; pepper keeps flies away. Properly dried keeps months. Hang high from animals covered from egg-laying flies. Wash mouldy spots (harmless) before cooking to eat.

    JERKY: Preferably beef or deer flank. Cut 1 1/2×1/4″ strips, any length. Dry same process until shoe-leather brittle (12 hours to 2 days) Will keep year or more in cool dry place.

    PEMMICAN: Powdered jerky, mixed 50/50 with paste of dried berry (any) or fruit pulp & melted suet rolled into balls. Store in watertight material or dip in more suet for extra coating. Will keep years; highly nutritious classic survival food.

    FISH-DRYING: Split down back or fillet; sun dry on rocks. Grind bones, meat, add to stew, patties, etc. Don’t eat raw. (Parasites!)

    SMALL GAME, BIRDS: Dry whole, on rocks in sun; prop ribs open with stick. When dry; crush bones, dry extra day dries marrow.

    ROASTING TUBERS, FISH ETC.ack in mud, clay; put in coals. Scales peel off with mud.

    SOUP HOLE / BATH WATER: Dig hole, line with waterproof material. Put in layer of rocks, then red-hot rocks. (Warning! Water inside rock will explode if heated).

    STEAM PIT: Dig hole, put in red hot rocks, 2″ layer of grass (green) then food, more grass; fill up with damp soil/sand. Poke hole to bottom of pit to add steaming water. Many hours to cook.

    RAFTS: 3 long logs, STANDING dead wood (test float BEFORE)! (Bundled plants, limbs OK!) Notch to fit or lash. Square raft will spin. Listen ahead for rapids.

    ROUND BOATtretch waterproof material over domed frame of Willow sticks.

    RAFT AUTO PILOT: Rock or pail trailing on short rope from front centre, keeps raft in main channel.

    PUMP DRILL: For stone, wood, bone, hard stone bit, jasper, agate. Use fine quartz sand for abrasive. Or make simple drill by spinning stick between hands.

    SNOWSHOES: Lift line tied to front centre of each shoes aids walking or straps on Evergreen boughs.

    SNOW GOGGLES: Bark, clothe, etc., wrap around. Smear soot around eyes.

    COOLING FOOD:Evaporator; works best in sun, wind. Pot holds water cloth stays wet, open weave shelves circulate air or dig hole line with rock, cover slab rock and sand.

    FISH-NET: Gill net, hammock, unravel socks, sweater, tie 2″ loop; join many nets.

    PRESSURE FLAKING: Strike blade piece off large stone, hold padded blade, use blunt object to flake chips off with the needed piece & with twisting pressure into edge of blade.AXE heat slender willow and tie with shoots etc.

    POTTERY: Find particularly river bank clay; coil or slab wall, eventhickness. Hardwood fire in 2 feet deep pit, built on & around pottery. Remove when orange-red (4-6 hours); slow cool.

    CORDAGE: * ROPENettle; dry stalk fibbers; pound stalk, clean fibbers by hand. Good yarn, string, snares, nets, rope, bowstrings, woven fabrics. Milkweed; silky fibbers in dry stalk. Dogbane (best in West) silky stalk fibbers. Hawthorn, Willow, Elm, Spruce root, Rose; inner white bark good cordage, strongest when wet.

    SINEW: Long leg or back tendons. Scrape, sun dry till hard; pound it till soft but fluffy will split apart.

    KNOTS: MOST USEFUL ONES: Chair knot, Prussic knot, Eye knot or Fisherman knot, Log Hitch, Square knot, 2 Half Hitches, Bowline, Sheep-Shank, Bow-Line knot = (non-slip).PACKING: Suspend weight from hip belt or forehead; heavy items on top, near body or pull along tied onto forked limb.

    AIR RESCUE PICK/UP: One string with one end done with a Bow-line while the other rope has a Bow-line knot around your waist & also around the rope hooked to your foot, so they don’t spread apart.

    F/AID:

    GENERAL DESERT:

    Day-night temperatures extremes. Usually adequate Vegetation. Great visual range flash signal mirror even if no target; large fire at night. Keep fully covered from ultra-violet rays, dehydration. Slow easy does it.

    TRAVEL by NIGHT, SHADE BY DAY. Brief storm flash-flood dry creeks, canyons. Anticipate dead-end canyons, drop off.

    WATER: Base of hills /mountains/ solar still/cacti / dig hole.

    To prevent sun stroke take 1-10 salt tabs daily with water.

    FOOD: Mesquite, Beans, Palm, Cacti, Nuts, Seeds, Herbs, Salamanders, Insects, Small game, Deer, Antelope. Snakes, Spiders, Scorpions in shaded places, crevices. ALL are active at night but avoid man. Check shoes, clothes, bedding.

    GENERAL TUNDRA:

    Arctic plain, beyond forest line. Moss & Lichen. June & Aug driest months. Short 50F summer. Marshy-water can’t penetrate permafrost streams flood rapidly. Brownish surface water drinkable. Abundant lakes, ponds, meandering streams, rivers. THIN ICE everywhere. Game, vegetation, shelter, fuel at dangerous minimum.Severe blizzards, wind chill factor.

    SWARMS of black flies, mosquitoes, deer-flies, midges in summer but carry no diseases.

    QUICKSAND AT STREAM JUNCTURES: Foot Travel = Risky, exhausting, useless! Travel by raft no matter, how long it takes to build. Mirages no prominent landmarks. Most towns are on river.

    GENERAL TROPICS:

    (WORLDWIDE):RAIN FOREST: Dense aerial canopy, signalling = useless, little sunlight sound deadened, radio waves blocked.

    TRAVEL: During day only. Follow streams, adjacent ridge-line trails.

    TINDER: Inside large termite nests, dead wings in trees.

    TROPICS DANGERS: = Piranha freshwater fish (20″ in calm waters, devour everything. Build shelter above ground. MUCH POISON OAK, IVY, DON’T TOUCH ANYTHING UNLESS YOU HAVE TO.Large cats, poisonous snakes uncommon.

    WATER BOIL ALL!treams, springs, pools. Common liana vines full of water, cut section, drink as is. Grapevine, Bamboo similar water. AVOID IF MILKY. Water in tree crotches; “cups” in large aerial leaves, strain. Unripe Coconut milk = good. Hollowed out banana stumps fill with good water.

    FOOD & TROPICS: Vary with season, locale. Best along streams, shores, swamps, clearings, thickets. Sparse food in dense rain forest, cloud forest.ALL birds, animals, lizards, crocodiles, snakes, alligators, freshwater clams, shrimp, turtle, fish ARE EDIBLE AVOID FROGS & COOK ALL FLESH! (Parasites)

    SEARCH CLEARING FOR: Pigs, deer, coati squirrel, monkey, Iguana lizard (1-5 feet) good as chicken in Central South America. Bait for land Crabs with open Coconut.

    PLANT FOOD WARNING: Be cautious of plants with RED in any part. Abandoned native gardens in clearings = good, berries resembling strawberry, raspberry, blackberry are good as are wild figs of any colour. AVOID MILKY SAPS, except in Figs, Mangoes, Papaya, Breadfruit. Spit out seeds of ALL fruits may be poisonous.

    DON’T EAT: Corral Bean, Physic Nut, Dumb Cane, Manchineel. PALM ETC. All Palm Succulent parts

    EDIBLE. Peanuts below ground good Raw, cooked. Bananas: Raw, cooked, also shoots & buds.Plantains like raw bananas, roasted or boiled. Sugar Cane-chew inner stalk. ALL WILD SWEET POTATOES, YAMS, WILD TOMATOES = GOOD. Cooked leaves or Purslane, Pokeweed. Cassava (sweet type) root raw, boiled. ANY VINE:Like Morning Glory* HAS EDIBLE ROOTS, shoots, leaves if cooked. ALL FERNS: Young curled shoots = GOOD. BAMBOO = GOOD TO EAT: Common, young shoots best, like Asparagus. BREADFRUIT TREE: (30-40 feet.) large leathery leaves; cook fruit 6″ thick, rough yellow-green hung at end of branches. Remove seeds mash pulp. Staple for natives. Arrowroot 2-3 feet tall, large coarse herb; 1-3 feet leaves; green & purple flowers, white in tropical America. 2 lb. tuber good cooked.

    SAVANNAS TROPICAL GRASSLANDS

    Nearly impenetrable thickets. Large cats, snake uncommon. Insects bad, wasp, spiders, centipedes, scorpion most are poisonous but rarely fatal, except black widows. FOOD: Little variety in plant life. Streams much fish. Turtle bird eggs, fledglings = fast food.ALL GRASSES, SEEDS, NUTS, FRUITS = EDIBLE. Roots tubers tend to be poisonous when raw. Squeeze out juice, cook pulp.

    HOW TO BREATH PROPERLY:

    The following is a repeat found in other files however I feel it is important enough to repeat it here in this mini survival.It sounds strange but we have to learn to breath properly. Meaning that one MUST Exhale Completely; if one wants to use its Maximum Strength. A breathing control is aimed towards our ways to Exhale and Not about inhaling.One rebuilds his strength much better by Exhaling properly than by trying to force his air intake.

    IF YOU DO ANY HARD WORK, OR WALK FAST OR YOU ARE DIGGING YOUR OUTPUT INCREASES BY 50%; IF YOU APPLY YOURSELF BY SLOWLY!!! EXHALING BY PUSHING ALL THE AIR OUT OF YOUR LUNGS. Opera singers, swimmers and runners know this t”Rick”. For example if you get into a cold shower, you have the tendency to breath faster and to tense your muscles which only aggravates your torture. If on the other hand you try to exhale slowly and regularly you will be much surprised to notice the Little effect that this cold water has upon you. 6 DEEP EXHALATIONS! This is because a Slow Exhalation helps your body to adapt itself to this change.

    STRESS CONTROL & BREATHING: An attentive control on your respiration & especially of your timing contributes to your stress control in any moments of Tension, Stress or constraint. Most of us breath only 1/2 way. We breath incorrectly since we don’t have much choice but where we make the mistake is; when we do not exhale properly. Meaning; that we do not do it – Deeply Enough -. Thus we often sigh which is a sign warning us of a Need for a Deep Exhalation! AHHH! A sigh is a natural mean used by our body to exhale completely; once we have OOPS neglected to do so under STRESS. Just remember in your past when there was a Deep Stress & after that moment was over you felt the dear need for a full exhalation. AHHH!!! MMM!!! So one MUST learn to sigh methodically. Any blockage brought to your breathing system provokes deep pains! So any amelioration will be beneficial to your body & mindThe more one exhale air the more one is able to inhale. So the increasing of your capacity is the goal of any respiratory discipline.

    To take a conscious hold of your exhalation is the # 1 factor. What we MUST strive for is to make it a habit. BREATHING BEFORE ANY TASK! Exhale Deeply Before undertaking Any Task. You will thus facilitate the climbing of long stairs. Exercise yourself to breath IN during 2 steps, & to exhale during the next 2 steps. 2 IN & 2 OUT DEEPLY! But you MUST Exhale Completely BEFORE climbing the First step! BREATHING TO FIGHT COLD!: 6 DEEP EXHALATIONS will also SUSTAIN and INCREASE your RESISTANCE when you will have to fight against a “Deep 6!” Winter Wind! In any Harsh or Boring circumstances where STRESS puts a grip on you; Exhale Slowly thus you will Recharge your Nervous System. HUMMM! AHHH!

    BREATHING CONTROL EXERCISES: To help you along in this new technique, try reading out loud is a good exercise. Take an article and read on 1 breath as much as you can without effort. Do this a dozen time the first day. Count the words and start over the next day, this way you can measure your improvement.

    Another exercise is to count. Sit down comfortably, your back straight, inhale slowly and regularly counting to 4, pause for 1 second, then exhale till you reach 12, the next time; inhale till 5 and exhale till 15. Keep it up this way; and measure your progress. Once you have reached 21 you will notice that the fact of humming a song will help you Enormously in limiting the quantity of air you exhale. These exercises will bring MUCH GOOD to your OVERALL WELL BEING and will change many of your regular habits.

    A conscious breathing also brings a conscious acting or behaving. You will notice that it is impossible to slump in a couch and still breath effectively. All one has to do is to get his shoulder blades as close together as possible, to feel your lungs getting to work at their best. MMM! After a while these exercises will become second nature for an overall better well being. It could even help you cutting down on smoking by reducing the stress overall! Just remember: ” DEEP 6

    “Yours truly Richard Perron! May 1995

Originally posted @ Sharing Sustainable Solutions

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